On July 3, 1828, the Liberator Simón Bolívar, formally declared war on Peru, after the diplomatic disagreements that were taking place between our country and Gran Colombia, as a result of political actions that directly affected the interests of this country deployed by the president of Peru, José La Mar.
José la Mar intended to annex the great Colombian city of Cuenca (now Ecuador) to Peru, as well as having interfered in Bolivian politics by influencing the repeal of the constitution that governed Bolivia, and which had been sworn in by Antonio José de Sucre, Bolivar's collaborator, thus weakening the influence that this character exercised over these territories.
In this way, by the second half of 1828, we were in a state of war, however, our squadron was disarmed as a result of the peace that was lived since the surrender of the port of Callao (as expressed on one occasion by the then General Commander of the Navy, José Pascual de Vivero) and the budget reduction applied by the government to the Navy.
Before a war whose outcome would be determined by the hegemony that one of the belligerent countries could exert over the other, the urgency to rearm the squadron was an urgent task, for this reason, La Mar ordered the rearmament and improvement of the ships, which could be achieved thanks to donations from citizens in general.
Thus, Peru could count on its two main vessels: the "Libertad" corvette, and the "Presidente" frigate. The "Libertad", commanded by the Frigate Captain Carlos García del Postigo, sailed from Callao in the direction of the Gulf of Guayaquil, but when he was in Punta Malpelo, he recognized the Colombian ships "Guayaquileña" and "Pichincha", with whom he maintained a fight on August 31 of that year. The "President" (flagship) was commanded by Admiral Martín Jorge Guise, in whom the command of the squadron fell, and had First Lieutenant José Boterín Becerra (born in Callao in 1798) as second commander.
On September 18, 1828, the national squadron set sail from Callao, anchored in Paita two days later, a port from where it returned to the sea on November 21, bound for Guayaquil with the aim of blocking it. The National squadron sailed through the waters of the Guayas River, where it was stranded by the low tide. This allowed the defenses of that port an offensive that cost the life of Admiral Guise on November 24 of that year, being succeeded by José Boterín, who ordered to continue the bombing and the blockade until the capture of the ship " Guayaquileña "and the subsequent Guayaquil Redemption on January 29, 1829, defeating the Colombian naval forces, but not the population, which was always taken care of the attacks.
Subsequently, already in large columbian territory, the Army added important victories such as the Portete de Tarqui on February 27, 1829, for which the Giron agreement was signed ending this war.
It should be noted that at the beginning of the war our squadron was unarmed which meant a great danger. However, the union of citizens, the skill and courage of our sailors, such as Admiral Martín Jorge Guise and First Lieutenant José Boterín, they allowed to obtain extremely important victories in the sea, which led, subsequently, to the occupation of the territory of the belligerent country, and that throughout this campaign, our Navy did not abuse its power attacking the defenseless Colombian population.
Concerning maritime boundary between Chile and Peru
Anniversary of the International Court of Justice at The Hague concerning maritime boundary between Chile and Peru
City of the Kings
During the War of the Peru–Bolivia Confederation , the Peruvian fleet commander was Juan Blanchet who was made up of the corvette "Edmond", the brig "Arequipeño", the boat "Mejicana" and the schooner "Peru". While the Chilean restoration fleet was composed by the "Confederación" and "Valparaíso" corvettes, the "Santa Cruz" boat and the "Isabel" transport boat. The Chilean naval force being in Santa, and the need to collect firewood for the consumption of its ships, the Peruvian Rear Admiral Carlos García del Postigo commissioned the commander Roberto Simpson to travel to Casma for that purpose.
On January 12, while the load of firewood was being made on the boat Isabel, the Peruvian ships entered the bay, while the Chileans prepared for their defense. During the combat collided the "Confederation" against "Arequipeño", suffering both serious damages ship, whereas the fusillade confrontation was intense. An hour and a half lasted the cannonade and the fusillade, Commander Blanchet died, the Peruvian ships withdrew, leaving the "Arequipeño" in the enemy hands. The allies losses were 12 dead and 70 prisoners, while the Chileans had 8 dead and many others wounded. A few days later the Battle of Yungay took place where the Confederate army was defeated.
Created the Bolivian Peru confederation, many opponents came quickly, including Chile. In January, first days in 1838, the Chilean ships "Aquiles", "Libertad", "Valparaíso", "Monteagudo" and "Arequipeño" that sailed from the port of Arica on January 10 set sail from Valparaíso to our coasts. The brig "Junín" was authorized to go towards Islay and reinforce the defense.
On January 12, the Chilean division led by Simpson, made up of the brigs "Aquiles" and "Arequipeño", the corvettes "Libertad" and "Valparaíso" and the frigate "Monteagudo" against the Peruvian squadron lead by the commander Juan José Panizo, formed by the corvette "Socabaya" and the brigs "Fundador" and "Junín". The final result decided the Peruvian victory due to the best Panizo sail ability . Although this fight was not decisive, it will always be memorable in the Peruvian Navy annals because the three ships that represented it in the waters of Islay, deployed such a unit of action that it seems as if their commanders for the speed and opportunity of their maneuvers, they would have guessed the respective intentions because very few signals were made.
The Chilean fleet lead by Commander Simpson also maneuvered well but the Peruvian Commander Panizo was more opportune. The tactical triumph that his inferiority allowed, but indirectly he won the strategic game because with his forced stay in the place of combat, he disoriented the Chileans who doubtless believed that, in the shadows at night, its course would have been to put itself under the protection of the canyons of Callao and since they did not find it, they clended in demand of their coasts fearing that Panizo had thrown towards them.