El PERÚ ANTIGUO
The Peruvian Navy is an institution that emerged in the context of the independence process.
Nevertheless, the relation with the sea of the old Peruvian settler dates back to ancestral times until times when the hunter-gatherers who occupied the Andes descended to the coast to exploit the rich marine resources that the Peruvian Current facilitates.
At first, the exploitation of resources was limited to the harvesting of shellfish at certain times of the year - there the remains of large conchales that today testify their activity in some points of the coast. Then, the abundance of marine species would lead to the development of fishing, with hooks and nets initially from the shore, as evidenced by those found in Paracas (8,830 BC), and then to enter the sea, having had to devise the elaboration of Floaters and later vessels themselves. The emergence of boats in the present Peruvian coast obeyed the specific needs that each town or culture was finding. It is not possible, with available evidence, to point to a date in which this process began, but certainly some 4,500 years ago the coastal man's diet had begun to include larger fish, which lived far from the shore.
Using the materials available locally, some of these groups built flotation aids that later evolved to the condition of rafts capable of transposing the breakwater. When this level was reached, some of these groups ventured further distances, carrying out navigations that allowed them to alter their ancestral patterns of barter and reciprocity, so widespread in the Andean world. With them came the first glimpse of a new social order, when a group specialized in trade and navigation appeared. Such was, at least on the Peruvian coast, the case of the Chincha.
The boats of the Andean world had their own evolutionary process. Apparently, the earliest were of totora and palo, which were used in fishing to become the current horses of totora and balsillas of the North coast. Apparently, due to the state necessities moche, the raft of totora grew and reached important dimensions, being used for the exchange and eventually for the war, as evidenced by its rich iconography.
The palo balsilla evolved more slowly, but it managed to incorporate some important advances, such as the sail, with its corresponding rig, and a peculiar system of government, using guares or pairs of plates that were submerged between the trunks to govern and to avoid the drift . The raft of sticks expanded by the Andean world towards the beginning of this millennium, replacing the great raft of totora. When the Europeans arrived on Peruvian coasts, they were able to find a vessel of similar size to some of their own, with a cargo capacity of up to 60 or 70 tons. Its ingenious system of government was adapted to the European boats, thus arising the variable keel or keel, Peruvian contribution to the world navigation.
Finally, at the time of the Spanish arrival already in some parts of the coast as in Ilo and Chancay - small boats had begun to be used for fishing purposes.