THE INDEPENDENCE AND ESTABLISHMENT OF THE PERUVIAN NAVY
During the time of Independence, the sea was the way by which the liberating forces arrived at Peruvian territory and they put in check the realistic forces to finally obtain the independence of Peru.
However, the planning of this maritime operation, the most important carried out until then in waters of the South American Pacific, had its antecedents some years before. In order to maintain the independence achieved both in Argentina and in Chile, it was necessary to do the same in Upper and Lower Peru, and for this the independentistas forces to the control of San Martin, were clear that to put in check the nucleus of the Spanish power settled in The Peru, would have to take the own forces by sea, but previously obtaining the control of the sea. As early as 1816, Buenosairean and Chilean corsairs had made several incursions against Peruvian ports, and in 1819, Admiral Cochrane, a British sailor serving the libertarian cause, under orders from San Martin, made two expeditions on the Peruvian coast, successfully attacking the port of Callao , Thus practically neutralizing the realistic naval forces.
Don José de San Martín Having taken this important step, in Chile, and under the command of San Martin, a Liberating Expedition was constituted, whose squadron, under the command of Cochrane, consisted of eight warships and eighteen transports that carried on board some 4,500 soldiers. This naval force sailed from Valparaiso on August 20, 1820, and arrived at its chosen destination in the bay of Pisco, south of Lima, on September 7, disembarking on 8 and beginning its ground operations by dispatching an army column Patriot to the interior of the country.
Then the main body of this expeditionary army moved on October 26, 1820 by sea to the north of Lima, establishing its base of operations in the city of Huaura. From there it would be possible for the royalists to leave the capital on July 6, 1821, then enter San Martin with his army and occupy the city, where the independence of Peru was proclaimed on the 28th of the same month.
Nevertheless, although the capital was in the hands of the patriot forces, this did not happen with the port of Callao, which until September had to remain under realistic control. With regard to the establishment of the naval institution of the Republic of Peru, the government constituted under the protectorate of General San Martin ordered the ship's captain Martin Jorge Guise, of British origin, to organize a navy, naming it As its first General Commander. The nascent Navy, inherited the land and port establishment of the Maritime Department of Callao, adopting the Spanish naval ordinances, except for what refers to the disciplinary rules on board, which were the British.
The first ship to fly the national flag was the Sacramento schooner, captured on March 17, 1821 by the brothers Victoriano and Andrés Cárcamo, and renamed Castelli. In September, the brigantines Belgrano and Balcarce, who had served the realist cause under the name of Guerrero and Pezuela, were incorporated. In November the corvette Limeña was added to the squadron; At the beginning of 1822 the schooner Macedonia and then of the same class Cruz, the brigantine Colonel Spano and finally the frigate Protector, that had served to the king under the name of Test.
Goleta Sacramento The initial function of the Peruvian Navy was to block the ports of the south, an area still occupied by the royalists and on which San Martin had conceived an operation that began on October 15, 1821, sending the corvette Limeña and the brigantines Balcarce and Belgrano to establish control of the coast between Cobija and Nazca. However, these ships were not able to fulfill the mission, which was compounded by the lack of knowledge about the blockade by foreign ships, which made the task difficult. In the meantime, by the end of 1821 the First Intermediate Ports Expedition had been carried out, and the port of Arica was captured by the Peruvian squadron. In 1823, the government of Jose de la Riva-Aguero ordered the navy's command to the captain of ship Jose Pascual de Vivero, seconded by Guise to the front of the Squadron, who already had the degree of rear admiral. Both were in charge of planning the Second Campaign to Intermediate Ports.
Vice Admiral Jorge Martín Guise Later, in February of 1824, Callao was taken over by royalist forces, which led to the blockade being extended to the port of Chancay. The Peruvian squadron, maintained a long blockade in the Callao by space of almost two years, lapse in which several raids took place and a confrontation with the realistic squadron.Although hostilities ceased with Spanish capitulation after the triumph of the patriot army at the Battle of Ayacucho on December 9, 1824, a handful of royalists under the command of Spanish General Ramon Rodil would still be left in the Royal Philippe Castle, who would finally desist from Its resistance in January of 1826, when surrendering to the patriot forces, disappearing with it the last vestiges of the Spanish domination in Peru.